Air dry tons (ADT) :
Meaning dry solids content of 90% and moisture content of 10%
Base stock :
Paper that will be further processed as in coating or laminating.
Organic material such as wood, waste and alcohol fuels, as well as gaseous and liquid fuels produced from these feedstocks when they are burned to produce energy
Black liquor :
The spent cooking liquor from the pulping process which arises when pulpwood is cooked in a digester thereby removing lignin, hemicellulose and other extractives from the wood to free the cellulose fibres. The resulting black liquor is an aqueous solution of lignin residues, hemicellulose, and the inorganic chemicals used in the pulping process. Black liquor contains slightly more than half of the energy content of the wood fed into the digester
Bleached Board :
A general term covering any board composed of 100% bleached fiber.
Bleached Packaging Paperboard :
A paperboard made from approximately 85% virgin bleached chemical pulp.
Bleached Paperboard :
A general term covering any board composed of 100% bleached fiber.
Bleached pulp :
Pulp that has been bleached by means of chemical additives to make it suitable for fine paper production
Pulp fibers are generally bleached to produce white fibers for papermaking. Other reasons are: to increase the chemical stability and permanence of wood fibers by chemical purification; and to obtain clean, sanitary fibers as required for food packaging papers.
The general term designating the paperboard used for fabricating boxes. It may be made of wood pulp or paper stocks or any combinations of these and may be plain, lined, or clay coated.
Light reflecting property of paper in comparison with a reference standard. Paper brightness affects the legibility and contrast of printing.
Brown Pulp :
Cellulosic components of the wood remain with the pulp. The pulp is generally used for wrapping and bag paper.
Bulk expresses the specific volume of a material. Bulk is the inverse of density.
Bursting strength :
A measurement of the strength of paper to withhold pressure.
Casting and release paper :
Cellulose (fiber) :
Fibrous components of wood have been removed by pulping and bleaching operations, used in making paper
Confederation of European Paper Industries
Chemical oxygen demand (COD) :
The amount of oxygen required to break down the organic compounds in effluent
Chemical Pulp :
Obtained by digestion of wood with solutions of various chemicals. The paper produced is strong and less prone to discoloration. The pulp yield is lower in this process. The principal chemical processes are the sulfate (kraft), sulfite, and soda processes. Chemical pulps are used to make shipping containers, paper bags, printing and writing papers, and other products requiring strength.
Combined heat and power
Paper with a surface coating imparting a smooth finish. Coated paper finishes have a higher opacity and better ink holdout than uncoated papers.
Coated mechanical :
Coated paper made from groundwood pulp which has been produced in a mechanical process, primarily used for magazines, catalogues and advertising material
Coated papers :
Papers that contain a layer of coating material on one or both sides. The coating materials, consisting of pigments and binders, act as a filler to improve the printing surface of the paper
Coated woodfree :
End publications and advertising material
Solid fibre or corrugated and combined board used in the manufacture of shipping containers and related products. Also the component materials used in fabrication of corrugated board and solid fibre combined board. The raw materials used to make containerboard may be virgin cellulose fiber, recycled fiber, or a combination of bot
An investor controls an investee when it is exposed, or has rights, to variable returns from its involvement with the investee and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the investee
Corrugating medium :
Chemical pulp, or waste paper, that is to be converted to a corrugated board by passing it through corrugating cylinders. Corrugating medium between layers of linerboard form the board from which corrugated boxes are produced
Current asset radio :
Current assets divided by current liabilities
Often used interchangeably with trim, referring to the salable width of the web on the paper machine.
Deckle edge :
The untrimmed feather edge of paper formed on the wire where the pulp flows against the deckle straps.
Density is the specific weight of a material. Lead is denser than cottonwool: a cubic metre of (m²) of lead weighs more than a cubic metre of cottonwool. The density of water is 1000 kg/m². When the density of a material is less than that of water, the material will float on the water's surface and will not sink. Paper density expresses how compact the paper is. Paper density is calculated from the basis weight and the thickness as follows:
Diluted earnings per share :
Discount rate :
Tax interest rate that reflects the current market assessment of the time value of money for the purposes of determining discounted cash flows. In determining the cash flows the risks specific to the asset or liability are taken into account in determining those cash flows and are not included in determining the discount rate
Disposal date :
The date on which control in respect of subsidiaries, joint arrangements and significant influence in associates ceases
Dissolving Pulp/Special Alpha :
A special grade of chemical pulp usually made from wood or cotton linters for use in the manufacture of regenerated or cellulose derivatives such as acetate, nitrate, etc. Fluff Pulp A chemical, mechanical or combination chemical/mechanical pulp, usually bleached, used as an absorbent medium in disposable diapers, bedpads and hygienic personal products. Also known as "fluffing" or "comminution" pulp.
Dissolving pulp :
Highly purified chemical pulp derived primarily from wood, but also from cotton linters intended primarily for conversion into chemical derivatives of cellulose and used mainly in the manufacture of viscose staple fibre, solvent spin fibre and filament
Dissolving wood pulp :
Highly purified chemical pulp derived from wood intended primarily for conversion into chemical derivatives of cellulose and used mainly in the manufacture of viscose staple fibre, solvent spin fibre and filament
A sheet that has been coated twice on the same side.
Generally referred to as pulp in the paper industry. Wood is treated chemically or mechanically to separate the fibres during the pulping process
Fine paper :
Paper usually produced from chemical pulp for printing and writing purposes and consisting of coated and uncoated paper
Surface contour and characteristics measurable by smoothness, gloss, absorbency, and print quality.
Fluorescent paper :
Paper that has been manufactured with the addition of fluorescent dyes which give the brilliance that appears brighter when viewed in natural
Flute One of the wave shapes pressed into corrugated medium. A, B, C, E and F are common flute sizes.
Folding Boxboard :
A paperboard suitable for the manufacture of folding cartons, which can be made from a variety of raw materials on either a cylinder machine or a fourdrinier machine. It possesses qualities that permit scoring and folding, and has variable surface properties depending upon the printing requirements.
Foreign operation :
An entity whose activities are based or conducted in a country or currency other than that of the reporting entity
Gloss expresses the amount of directed light that is reflected in a certain direction. The glossier the paper, the better the image reproduction.
Grain Direction :
Direction in which most of the fibers lie in a finished sheet of paper. Fibers flow parallel to the direction in which the paper travels on the paper machine during manufacture.
Grain long :
Term used to designate that the grain of the paper is parallel to the longest measurement of a sheet of paper. The fibers are aligned parallel to the length of the sheet.
Wood from trees having short fibers. These fibers are used in papermaking to obtain good formation, smoothness, opacity and a good print surface.
International organisation for Standardisation. An international organisation that has approved a range of standards extensively used in industry.
ISO 14001 :
ISO 9001 :
Jumbo roll :
White clay mass primarily composed of the clay mineral, kaolinite. In refined form, it is used as a coating filler, and as an opacifying agent for paper making. Its important properties are plasticity when wet and hardening when baked or fired. Kaolin retains its whiteness after firing.
Kraft (Sulfate) Pulp :
Refers to a strong papermaking fiber produced by the kraft process where the active cooking agent is a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulfide. The term "kraft" is commonly used interchangeable with "sulfate" and is derived from a German word which means "strong."
Kraft paper :
Packaging paper (bleached or unbleached) made from kraft pulp
Kraft process :
Speed paper machines, presses and converting equipment.
Paper that is developed by fusing one or more layers of paper together to the desired thickness and quality.
The grade of paperboard used for the exterior facings of corrugated board. Linerboard is combined with corrugating medium by converters to produce corrugated board used in boxes
White liquor is the aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and sodium sulphide used to extract lignin during kraft pulping. Black liquor is the resultant combination of lignin, water and chemicals
Machine coated :
Paper coated one or two sides on the papermaking machine.
Machine direction :
Establishes the grain direction which is always parallel with the travel of the paper over the wire. Also see cross direction.
Machine trim :
Refers to the width allowed across the paper machine. Always a min and max allowed depending on basis weight and grade. Each machine has a specific number of cuts/slitters.
Market pulp :
Pulp which is sold on the open market. Some paper and board manufactures with pulp producing facilities sell all pulp in excess of that which is required for their paper making operations. Thus, they are paper manufacturers and sellers as well as pulp manufacturers and sellers.
Mechanical pulp :
Wood pulp manufactured wholly, or in part, by a mechanical process.
Mechanical Pulp :
Ground wood, chemigroundwood and chip mechanical pulp. Paper made by this process is opaque and has good printing properties, but it is weak and discolors easily when exposed to light due to residual lignin in the pulp. Uses include newsprint printing papers, specialty papers, tissue, toweling, paperboard and wallboard.
Trap mottle, pigment flocculation, striations, etc.
Natural/indigenous forest :
Pristine areas not used commercially
Northern Bleached Hardwood Kraft pulp. One of the varieties of market pulp, produced from hardwood trees (ie birch or aspen) in Scandinavia, Canada and northern USA
Northern Bleached Softwood Kraft pulp. One of the main varieties of market pulp, produced from coniferous trees (ie spruce, pine) in Scandinavia, Canada and northern USA. The price of NBSK is a benchmark widely used in the pulp and paper industry for comparative purposes
Net operating assets :
Bearing borrowings and overdraft)
A lightweight paper, made mainly from mechanical wood pulp, engineered to be bright and opaque for the good print contrast needed by newspapers. Newsprint also contains special tensile strength for repeated folding. It does not includes printing papers of types generally used for purposes other than newspapers such as groundwood printing papers for catalogs, directories, etc
an international health and safety standard aimed at minimising occupational health and safety risks firstly, by conducting a variety of analyses and secondly, by setting standards
Packaging Papers :
These papers are used to wrap or package consumer and industrial products such as grocer's bags and sacks, shopping and merchandise bags, and multiwall shipping sacks used for shipping such products as cement, flour, sugar, chemicals and animal food. "Specialty" packaging papers are used for cookies, potato chips, ice cream, and similar products.
Packaging paper :
Paper used for packaging purposes
Paper grades :
Paper is classified into different grades according to the end use, the pulp used and the treatment of the paper.
One of the two subdivisions of paper. The distinction is not great, but paperboard is heavier in basis weight, thicker, and more rigid than paper. All sheets 12 points (0.012 inch) or more in thickness are classified as paperboard. There are exceptions. Blotting paper, felts, and drawing paper in excess of 12 points are classified as paper while corrugating medium, chipboard, and linerboard less than 12 points are classified as paperboard. The broad classes within paperboard include containerboard, boxboard, and all other paperboard.
Fibrous material prepared from wood, cotton, grasses, etc., by chemical or mechanical processes for use in making paper or cellulose products.
Wood suitable for producing pulp – usually not of sufficient standard for sawmilling
Qualifying asset :
an asset that necessarily takes a substantial period (normally in excess of six months) to get ready for its intended use
Recoverable amount :
Generating unit is the higher of its fair value less costs of disposal and its value in use. In determining the value in use, expected future cash flows are discounted to their net present values using the discount rate
The structure of the surface of paper varies in just the same way as the surface of the landscape. For example, the pinholes between fibres in uncoated paper are relatively very large like the distances between valleys and mountains, where as the glossy surface of coated paper, with its smaller irregularities, is considerably smoother. The term roughness is usually only used in relation to uncoated paper.
Kraft paper used to produce multiwall paper sacks
Secondary fiber :
A term used for wastepaper, also referred to as paper stock.
Chemical woodpulp that is partially bleached.
Measure of paper surface irregularities. Sheffield Smoothness is a measure of the formation induced irregularities. Parker Print Surface measure the paper surfaces micro variation in roughness.
Wood from trees having long fibers (pine trees). Softwood fibers are used in papermaking to impart strength to a sheet of paper and are also noted for their exceptional absorbency
Solid Bleached Sulfate (SBS) :
Paperboard comprised of fully bleached virgin kraft pulp (sulfate process) fiber. Bleached refers to the fact that it is bleached to an appealing high brightness. Sulfate refers to the chemical process used in preparing the pulp.
Solid waste :
Dry organic and inorganic waste materials
Special items :
Cash gains or losses on the price fair value adjustment of plantations and alternative fuel tax credits receivable in cash
Specialised Cellulose :
The business within Sappi which oversees the production and marketing of dissolving wood pulp
Speciality paper :
A generic term for a group of papers intended for commercial and industrial use such as flexible packaging, metallised base paper, coated bag paper, etc
When data is expressed in specific form, this means that the actual quality consumed during the year indicated, whether energy, water, emissions or solid waste, is expressed in terms of a production parameter. For Sappi, as with other pulp and paper companies, this parameter is air dry tons of saleable product
A product not made to order and stored in a warehouse or distribution center.
Sulfate pulp :
Predominant fiber used by the paper industry. It is obtained by cooking wood chips with the chemicals sodium sulfate and sodium hydroxide. The sodium sulfate is converted to sodium sulfide in the process.
Sulfite Pulp :
A papermaking fiber produced by an acid chemical process in which the cooking liquor contains an excess of SO2. The sulfite liquor is a combination of a soluble (such as ammonium, calcium
Alternating rolls of highly polished steel and compressed cotton in a stack. During the process the paper is subjected to the heated steel rolls and “ironed” by the compressed cotton rolls. It imparts a high gloss finish to some paper grades.
Pulp produced by processing woodfibres using heat and mechanical grinding or refining wood or woodchips
Term used on this website to denote a metric ton of 1,000kg
The process of combining various roll sizes that have a common grade, caliper core size, diameter, and wind direction to constitute an acceptable percent of the maximum salable width of a reel of paper from a paper machine.
Pulp which has been cooked but not bleached
Uncoated woodfree paper :
Printing and writing paper made from bleached chemical pulp used for general printing, photocopying and stationery, etc. Referred to as uncoated as it does not contain a layer of pigment to give it a coated surface
Viscose staple fibre (VSF) :
A natural fibre made from purified cellulose, primarily from dissolving wood pulp that can be twisted to form yarn
Wet strength papers :
Tensile strength. Superior quality wet strength papers may retain as much as 50% or more of their dry strength following immersing in water.
Wf coated :
Paper made only from chemical pulp and free from wood-based impurities, such as lignin, which are present in mechanical pulp. Also known as free sheet.
The visual appearance of white paper, especially when it contains fluorescent whitening agents. It is based on reflectance data obtained over the full visual spectrum.
Woodfree paper :
Paper made from chemical pulp